Toothache can be caused by several tooth, gum or  periodontium diseases.

Tooth decay

Is not only the most frequent tooth disease but also the most frequent infectious disease in human body. The main reason and trigger of this disease are the bacteria which melabolize sugars in food and drinks with excessive sugar content. This does not mean that if we want to prevent tooth caries we must omit sugar from our diet. However, to consume pure sugar, for example in sweet drinks, can be ‘deadly‘ for our teeth.


Gingivitis or inflammation of gums is a disease which can be characterized as a microbial infection. Microbes which accumulate on the surface of teeth produce substances which damage gums. The most frequent symptoms are bleeding or sensitive gum.


Parodontitis originates in untreated chronic gingivitis. If inflammation of gums progresses into inflammation of periodontium, parodontitis develops. Parodontitis damages not only gums and teeth, it is an overall destruction of fibers and bone. The primary symptom of parodontitis is the so called periodontal pocket which is diagnosed only clinically with a periodontal probe in the mouth of patient. Without the examination this serious disease can be esaily unnoticed not only by patient but also by dentist since gums may at first glance look perfectly healthy.

Untreated parodontitis can have an extremely serious and destructive prognosis. Besides the damage in periodontium, it can very badly influence the whole body. Several clinical studies outline a relationship between inflammated periodontium and other diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s dementia, heart and brain attack, various malignant diseases, etc.  The more the studies pay attention to these issues, the more links emerge. From this point of view parodontitis must be looked at as a complex health issue.

Anomalies of permanent tooth formation and eruption

Anomalies are developed at the time when permanent teeth have not yet been erupted, e. i. before their eruption. They are mostly caused by milk tooth traumas or by root inflammation of milk teeth. These anomalies are observed during the eruption mainly in unequal eruption of the same type of teeth. After the eruption of permanent teeth one can observe the change in color and shape of the tooth crown.

Post-traumatic conditions

As a category of tooth diseases they include numerous variations of damage of tooth or its parts; they can in the worst cases cause damage the whole periodontium. They are most frequently caused by accidents at preschool age.